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Book Launch: Leftover Women

2:30pm – 4:00pm
Thursday, April 24h
Runme Shaw 204
Chair: Trey Menefee

How has gender inequality re-emerged in China’s post-socialist era of rapid economic growth, in spite of the sweeping expansion of educational opportunities for urban women over the past decade and a half? Urban Chinese women today are arguably the most highly educated in Chinese history. The increased educational accomplishments of urban women have led some scholars to refer to trends such as the “empowerment of urban daughters” under China’s one-child policy, which suggested that urban women no longer had to compete with brothers for parental investment in education. However, expectations about women’s empowerment in China have proven to be overly optimistic. This talk examines some major obstacles to gender equality among urban residents that have emerged in recent years of market reforms, which have created stark new gender inequalities in wealth and a decrease in many urban women’s bargaining power within marriage. In spite of women’s significant educational gains, this talk argues that other developments have contributed to a fall in the socioeconomic status of urban, Chinese women relative to men.

Leta Hong-Fincher is the first American doctoral candidate in the Department of Sociology at Tsinghua University in Beijing. She has a master’s degree in East Asian Studies from Stanford University and a bachelor’s degree, magna cum laude, in East Asian Languages and Civilizations from Harvard University.


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Monograph 10 Available: Regulating Private Tutoring for Public Good


CERC Monograph Series 10, Regulating Private Tutoring for Public Good: Policy Options for Supplementary Education in Asia, is now available for download and order. The book was authored by Mark Bray and Ora Kwo and is the outcome of the UNESCO, CERC, and Asian Development Bank (ADB) Shadow Education Policy Forum.

Recent years have brought global expansion of private supplementary tutoring alongside regular school systems. This expansion has far-reaching implications for the nurturing of new generations, for social and economic development, and for the operation of school systems. Some dimensions are positive while other dimensions are problematic.

Supplementary tutoring is especially visible in Asia. The formats of tutoring range from one-to-one provision to large classes. Some tutoring is provided by teachers and by specialist companies, while other tutoring is provided informally by university students and others.

Using a comparative lens, this book examines possible government responses to the expansion of private supplementary tutoring. In general, the book suggests, the sector should be given more attention. The work shows wide diversity in the regulations introduced by governments in the Asian region. It notes not only that these governments can learn much from each other, but also that policy makers in other parts of the world can usefully look at patterns in Asia. The book also stresses the value of partnerships between governments, tutoring providers, schools, teachers’ unions, and other bodies.

Mark BRAY is UNESCO Chair Professor in Comparative Education at the University of Hong Kong, and is a former Director of UNESCO’s International Institute for Educational Planning.

Ora KWO is an Associate Professor and a member of the Comparative Education Research Centre in the Faculty of Education at the University of Hong Kong.

Iran: Shadow Education Lecture and Book Launch

Mark Bray and Ora Kwo visited Tehran for a lecture on shadow education and the launch of a Farsi translation of the Comparative Education Research: Approaches and Methods and the UNESCO IIEP book Confronting the shadow education system. What government policies for what private tutoring?



حضور در نشست‌هایی كه بر دانش و نگرش كار معلمی‌مان می افزاید، پویایی و طراوت و انگیزه‌ای زایدالوصف را ایجاد می‌كند. سازمان پژوهش و برنامه ریزی آموزشی وزارت آموزش و پرورش از این دست نشست‌ها را ترتیب می‌دهد. امروز فرصتی دست داد تا در نشستی با حضور استادی بین‌المللی و خیل گسترده ای از معلمان و متخصصان تعلیم و تربیت شركت كنم. این نشست حول موضوعی كه مبتلا به مدارس و خانواده‌های زیادی است و كمتر هم در مورد آن مداقه شده است تشكیل گردید. برای من جالب بود كه در موضوع تدریس خصوصی و اثرات اجتماعی آن مطالعات گسترده‌ای در سطح بین الملل صورت گرفته كه دكتر مارك بری از پیشگامان این امر بوده است.

او كه برای نخستین بار به ایران آمده بود، در روز دوم حضور خود، با هماهنگی‌های صورت گرفته در چنین نشستی حضور یافت. ایشان كه متولد لندن است به همراه همسرش هر دو از استادان دانشگاه هنگ كنگ بوده و به كشورهای زیادی سفر كرده است از جمله اینكه در كنیا و نیجریه معلم دبیرستان نیز بود. او به مدت شش سال ریاست موسسه بین المللی برنامه ریزی آموزشی یونسكو را نیز عهده دار بود و تا هفته آینده میهمان جمهوری اسلامی است. در صفحه شخصی ایشان در سایت دانشگاه هنگ كنگ چنین آمده است:

موضوع تدریس خصوصی و به تعبیر پروفسور، آموزش و پرورش در سایه (Shadow Education)، موضوعی مغفول و مجهول در آموزش و پرورش ماست. بنا بر اظهار نظر خانم دكتر آرین، برخلاف حساسیت زیاد آموزش و پرورش كه به جنبه‌های مختلف جریان تعلیم و تربیت می‌پردازد، این نوع آموزش كه به زعم وی محیط سوم آموزش بعد از مدارس معمولی و مدارس خاص (استعدادهای درخشان و استثنایی) است، كمتر حساسیت و حتی اطلاعاتی نسبت به آن هست.

خانم دكتر آرین كه از سخنرانان كوتاه این نشست بودند، مترجم كتاب آموزش و پرورش در سایه: تدریس خصوصی و آثار آن نیز می‌باشند. كتابی كه در كنار دو كتاب دیگر پروفسور مارك بری ترجمه شده و در انتهای نشست از آنها رونمایی شد.

در معرفی این كتاب می‌توان گفت:‌ نظام سایة تدریس خصوصی تكمیلی بسیار گسترده و در برخی نقاط جهان در حال رشد است. تدریس خصوصی اگرچه در بهبود وضعیت تحصیلی دانش‌آموزان موثر است، ولی از طرف دیگر بر كیفیت آموزشی، عدالت و آموزش خلاق تاثیر منفی دارد. به عقیدة نگارنده گسترش تدریس خصوصی تكمیلی را می‌توان در چارچوب گرایش جهانی به بازاری كردن آموزش و پرورش و كاهش كنترل دولت، مشاهده كرد. برخی از اهداف تهیة كتاب حاضر عبارت‌اند از: نظارت بر ارزشیابی و تغییر در سیاست‌های آموزشی و تاثیر آنها بر نیازهای برنامه‌ریزی آموزشی؛ و تاكید بر موضوعات جاری برنامه‌ریزی آموزشی و تحلیل آنها در زمینه‌های تاریخی و شرایط اجتماعی. نگارنده ضمن بیان اصول اساسی برنامه‌ریزی آموزشی، مباحثی مانند ویژگی‌های تدریس خصوصی؛ تولیدكنندگان و مصرف‌كنندگان آن؛ تاثیرات آموزشی، اجتماعی و اقتصادی تدریس خصوصی؛ و تنوع و تحول نظام‌های آموزشی را بررسی كرده است.

در ادامه مطلب به شرحی از محتوای مطالب مطروحه در این نشست می‌پردازم.

ادامه مطلب

نوع مطلب : پراكنده

برچسب ها: دكتر مارك بری تدریس خصوصی آموزش و پرورش در سایه سازمان پژوهش



Second Edition of Approaches and Methods Published

Approaches and methods in comparative education are of obvious importance, but do not always receive adequate attention. This second edition of a well-received book, containing thoroughly updated and additional material, contributes new insights within the long-standing traditions of the field.

A particular feature is the focus on different units of analysis. Individual chapters compare places, systems, times, cultures, values, policies, curricula and other units. These chapters are contextualised within broader analytical frameworks which identify the purposes and strengths of the field. The book includes a focus on intra-national as well as cross-national comparisons, and highlights the value of approaching themes from different angles. As already demonstrated by the first edition of the book, the work will be of great value not only to producers of comparative education research but also to users who wish to understand more thoroughly the parameters and value of the field.

The editors:

Mark Bray is UNESCO Chair Professor of Comparative Education at the University of Hong Kong. Bob Adamson is Professor and Head of the Department of International Education and Lifelong Learning at the Hong Kong Institute of Education; and Mark Mason is Professor at the Hong Kong Institute of Education and a Senior Programme Specialist at the UNESCO International Bureau of Education (IBE) in Geneva. They have all been Presidents of the Comparative Education Society of Hong Kong (CESHK), and Directors of the Comparative Education Research Centre (CERC) at the University of Hong Kong. They have also written extensively in the field of comparative education with reference to multiple domains and cultures.

Giáo dục Ngoài luồng: Học thêm và Ý nghĩa của nó đối với các Nhà hoạch định Chính sách ở châu Á


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Tại tất cả các khu vực của châu Á, các hộ gia đình đang dành một khoản chi tiêu đáng kể cho học thêm. Việc học thêm có thể góp phần vào những thành tích đạt được của học sinh nhưng đồng thời nó cũng duy trì và và làm cho bất bình đẳng xã hội thêm trầm trọng, làm chuyển hướng các nguồn lực vốn được dùng cho mục đích khác và có thể góp phần vào sự không hiệu quả của các hệ thống giáo dục.

Việc học thêm được nhìn nhận chung là giáo dục ngoài luồng vì nó bám theo hệ thống trường chính khóa. Khi chương trình giảng dạy của hệ thống chính khóa thay đổi, chương trình giảng dạy của giáo dục ngoài luồng cũng thay đổi theo.

Tài liệu nghiên cứu này ghi nhận quy mô và tính chất của giáo dục ngoài luồng tại những địa bàn khác nhau trong khu vực. Trong nhiều thập kỷ, giáo dục ngoài luồng đã trở thành một hiện tượng lớn ở Đông Á. Giờ đây nó đã lan rộng ra toàn khu vực và có những ý nghĩa xã hội và ý nghĩa kinh tế sâu rộng.

Bạn có thể tải về bản sao Việt Nam ở đây


  • Lời nói đầu
  • Tóm lược Tổng quan
  • Giới thiệu
  • Phác thảo bức tranh toàn cảnh
  • Cung và Cầu
  • Tác động của Giáo dục Ngoài luồng
  • Ý nghĩa đối với các nhà hoạch định chính sách
  • Kết luận
  • Phụ lục: Các quy định về học thêm
  • Tài liệu tham khảo

Shadow Education: Private Supplementary Tutoring and Its Implications for Policy Makers in Asia

Mark Bray & Chad Lykins (2012): Shadow Education: Private Supplementary Tutoring and Its Implications for Policy Makers in Asia has just been published by the Asian Development Bank.

In all parts of Asia, households devote considerable expenditures to private supplementary tutoring. This tutoring may contribute to students’ achievement, but it also maintains and exacerbates social inequalities, diverts resources from other uses, and can contribute to inefficiencies in education systems. Such tutoring is widely called shadow education, because it mimics school systems. As the curriculum in the school system changes, so does the shadow. This study documents the scale and nature of shadow education in different parts of the region. For many decades, shadow education has been a major phenomenon in East Asia. Now it has spread throughout the region, and it has far-reaching economic and social implications.

Education in the Commonwealth: Towards and Beyond the Internationally Agreed Goals

Trey Menefee & Mark Bray

Every three years the Ministers of Education and senior officials of the 54 Commonwealth countries convene to share experiences and advance on common agendas.

The 18th Conference of Commonwealth Education Ministers (CCEM) was held in Mauritius from 28 to 31 August 2012. It focused on progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the Education for All (EFA) goals.

Mark Bray and Trey Menefee were contracted by the Commonwealth Secretariat to produce the lead statistical document containing country ‘report cards’, which they presented during the opening session of the Ministers’ meeting. In this seminar they will share observations both on their report (which can be downloaded from, on the nature of the Ministers’ meeting, and on the wider agenda concerning new goals beyond 2015.

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