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Financing of Education in Indonesia

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indoEdited by Mark Bray & R Murray Thomas

1998, 135 pp

ISBN 10: 971-561-172-9
ISBN 13: 978-971-561-172-5

HK$140 (local), US$20 (overseas)

Published by Comparative Education Research Centre (CERC) & Asian Development Bank (ADB)

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This book results from a collaborative research project on the costs and financing of education in Indonesia. It focuses on all levels of education, and presents important data not only on public expenditures but also on household, community and other non-government expenditures. The analysis of private costs and financing includes focus on Islamic madrasahs and other religious institutions. The book is a seminal work which will be of value in the international framework as well as in the Indonesian one.


Chapter 1: The Indonesian Context
Chapter 2: The Education and Financing Systems
Chapter 3: Educational Expenditure 1995-1996
Chapter 4: School-Level Spending – Primary Schools
Chapter 5: School-Level Spending – Junior Secondary Schools
Chapter 6: School-Level Spending – Senior Secondary Schools
Chapter 7: Private Schools
Chapter 8: Higher Education
Chapter 9: Conclusions and Recommendations

Reducing the Burden on the Poor: Household Costs of Basic Education in Gansu, China

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Mark Bray, Ding Xiaohao, Huang Ping

2004, 117pp.

ISBN 10: 9628093320
ISBN 13: 9789628093328

HK$100 (local), US$16 (overseas)

Published by Comparative Education Research Centre (CERC)

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The Gansu Basic Education Project (GBEP) was launched in 1999 with the goal of helping one of the poorest parts of China to achieve universal basic education. The project aims particularly to assist minority children and girls, and has had a significant impact.

The reasons why children do not enrol in school, or drop out at an early stage, are many and complex. This study focuses on the costs of schooling to households. These costs can be a heavy burden, and may be a major obstacle to universalisation of basic education. The GBEP has aimed to reduce the costs to poor households in various ways. This study examines the arrangements for financing education at county and school levels. Among other project components, it focuses on the effectiveness of a targeted scholarship scheme for poor children, a reformed system of education budgeting, and a free-lunch programme.

Mark Bray is Dean of the Faculty of Education at the University of Hong Kong. Ding Xiaohao is Head of the Economics of Education Department in Peking University; and Huang Ping is Deputy Director of the Institute of Sociology of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.

Balancing the Books: Household Financing of Basic Education in Cambodia

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Mark Bray, Seng Bunly

2005, 113 pp.

ISBN 10: 962-8093-39-8
ISBN 13: 978-962-8093-39-7

HK$100 (local), US$16 (overseas)

Published by Comparative Education Research Centre (CERC) in collaboration with Human Development Unit, East Asia & Pacific Region, The World Bank

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Especially in less-developed countries, governments face great difficulties in financing education systems. Households commonly have to make major contributions of resources in order to bridge the gaps.Cambodia is among the countries in which government capacity has been particularly constrained, and in which the household costs of schooling have been especially high. This situation has created a major burden for poor families, and has exacerbated social inequalities. The Cambodian authorities in conjunction with donor agencies have devised policies to address the problem. They have had some significant successes, though many challenges remain.This book presents empirical data on the household costs of primary and lower secondary schooling. It builds on previous research which received considerable attention both nationally and internationally, and shows changes over time. The book has wide conceptual and policy significance, not only within Cambodia but also internationally.Mark Bray is Chair Professor of Comparative Education at the University of Hong Kong. He has written extensively on aspects of methodology in comparative education, and on the administration and financing of education systems. Seng Bunly is the Director of BN Consult in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. He has conducted many consultancies for local and international agencies.

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