Shadow Education in the Middle East: Private Supplementary Tutoring and its Policy Implications

Mark Bray and Anas Hajar

ISBN: 978-1-032-32980-2(hbk)

ISBN: 978-1-032-32981-9(pbk)

ISBN: 978-1-003-31759-3(ebk)

DOI: 10.4324/9781003317593

First published in 2023 by:
Routledge, London and New York in collaboration with the Centre for International Research in Supplementary Tutoring (CIRIST), East China Normal University (ECNU), Shanghai, the UNESCO Chair in Comparative Education at the University of Hong Kong (HKU), and the UNESCO Regional Center for Educational Planning (RCEP) in United Arab Emirates.


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