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Supplementary education at college and its consequences for individuals’ labor market outcomes in the United States

Professor Steve R. Entrich from the University of Potsdam, Germany gave a talk at the Shadow Education SIG on December 3, 2021. Professor Entrich’s talk was based on his recent paper with Professor Soo-yong Byun from Pennsylvania State University “Supplementary Education at College and Its Consequences for Individuals’ Labor Market Outcomes in the United States”.

The SIG seminar was chaired by Dr Nutsa Kobakhidze from HKU and attended by members of the SIG from Hong Kong SAR, Mainland China, Germany, Georgia and Japan.

Portuguese translation of Shadow Education book

CERC’s book entitled Shadow Education in Africa, published first in English in January 2021 and then in French, has now been published in Portuguese.

Its author, Mark Bray, launched the book on 19 November 2021 at a conference hosted by the University of Aveiro in Portugal. The conference focused on the management of education in times of uncertainty. Within this context, Professor Bray first gave a keynote address on shadow education worldwide, before turning specifically to Africa to launch the book.

The event was chaired by the hosted by Alexandre Ventura who is himself a noted researcher on shadow education in Portugal and Brazil and who has excellent connections with Lusophone African countries including Angola and Mozambique. As a former Deputy Minister of Education in Portugal, Professor Ventura is helping to call the book to the attention of policy makers as well as researchers.

The next language in which the book will be published is Arabic. That will complete the set of four main official languages spoken on the African continent.


The SIG seminar on December 3, 2021 at 4:00 pm HKT

The next SIG seminar will take place on December 3, 2021 at 4:00 pm HKT. The presenter will be Professor Steve R. Entrich from the University of Potsdam, Germany. Professor Entrich will talk about his recent published paper “Supplementary Education at College and Its Consequences for Individuals’ Labor Market Outcomes in the United States”. If you are interested in attending the seminar via Zoom, you can write an email to the SIG organiser Dr Nutsa Kobakhidze at

Tutoring or not tutoring: Understanding parents’ agency in children’s early English learning in China

Miss Gwen Zeng from the Education University of Hong Kong presented at the Shadow Education SIG on November 19. Gwen is a PhD student researching shadow education in China under the supervision of Dr. Kevin Yung. Her thesis is entitled as “Tutoring or not tutoring: Understanding parents’ agency in children’s early English learning in China”. More than 25 members of the shadow education SIG attended the presentation from Hong Kong, Mainland China, Germany and the United Kingdom.


Engaging with China’s Belt and Road Initiative: Perspectives from universities in Hong Kong and Kazakhstan

On November 30, 2021 (9pm HKT), please join us for a webinar at Comparative Education Research Centre hosting William Yat Wai Lo, Education University of Hong Kong and Jack Lee, University of Edinburgh, who will share and compare their most recent findings on Kazakhstan’s and Hong Kong’s academic engagement with China’s Belt and Road Initiative.
Please see more details in the poster, and use this Zoom link for registration:

Private Tutoring and Mainstream Education Linkages in India: A Political Economy Approach

On July 12, Shadow Education SIG members gathered on Zoom to listen to a presentation by Miss Shalini Bhorkar on Private Tutoring and Mainstream Education Linkages in India: A Political Economy Approach. 

Currently, Shalini is a doctoral candidate at the Institute of Education, UCL. She is also an HKU graduate from the Comparative and Global Studies in Education and Development (CGSED) MEd program.

Attendees included the SIG members from Hong Kong, Mainland China, the UK, Uzbekistan and Japan.

Admission Olympics: Expanding Tutoring Market for Kindergarten Interviews in Hong Kong

Date: July 15, Thursday, 2021
Time: 10 am to 11:30 am HKT 

Zoom Registration link:

Dr Alfredo Bautista, Associate Professor and Associate Head, Department of Early Childhood Education, The Education University of Hong Kong

Dr Nutsa Kobakhidze, Principal Investigator, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong
Ms Janice Chui, Research Team Member, Former Primary School teacher, MSc. Candidate in the Department of Education, Oxford University, UK
Janisa Hui, Ed.M. Research Team Member, Former Playgroup Teacher. Pursuing PhD Degree in the College of Education, University of Maryland – College Park, USA

Hong Kong is a fast-paced city where busy parents with high aspirations could be under immense pressure. To improve their children’s chance of success in the highly selective process of kindergarten admission, some parents outsource admission preparation to tutorial companies. Over the past decade, interview classes i.e. classes which prepare children for kindergarten interviews have grown in popularity among parents.

This session presents the findings from a qualitative study conducted in mid-2020, which examined the processes and mechanisms involved in kindergarten admission, with a particular focus on understanding the interview class market. The study covered a diversity of views from 78 participants including parents (local and non-local), kindergarten teachers, interview service providers, policy-makers and early childhood educators.

The Knowledge Exchange seminar invites non-academic communities such as parents, teachers, tutors, school leadership and policy-makers. The speakers will discuss implications of the study findings for child development, well-being and education. Special attention will be paid to how the COVID-19 pandemic changed the nature of kindergarten admission preparation services in Hong Kong. 

Shadow Education SIG seminar, 28 May 2021

On May 28, during the Shadow Education SIG seminar, Weilin Wang (HKU PhD student) and Robert Liu (HKU MEd student) spoke about shadow education research in Mainland China. Weilin shared his thoughts on how start tutors in China use examination-oriented pedagogy to help students with Gaokao preparation, while Robert shared emerging findings from his pilot study on A-level students’ use of private tutoring in an international school.

Research Collaborations and Innovation: Who Makes Strategic Decisions in Science and Scholarship?

Organizer: Comparative Education Research Centre, Faculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong

Speaker:  Professor Marek KWIEK

Director, Institute for Advanced Studies in Social Sciences and Humanities (IAS)

UNESCO Chair in Institutional Research and Higher Education Policy

University of Poznan, Poland

Date: May 18, 2021

Time: 18:00-19:15 (Hong Kong Time)

Format: Zoom

Please register: Click here


Publications are a major determinant of successful academic careers. Individual scientists make collaboration and authorship decisions: choosing team or solo publications, same-sex or mixed-sex collaborations, local, national or international collaborations? Past authorship decisions, including the choice of academic journals, bear on the availability of future external research grants as well as on opportunities for employment, promotion and tenure. Different types of collaborations have impact on inequalities as well as on innovation in science. In this presentation, Professor Kwiek will elaborate on dilemmas of collaborations in (1) local-national-international, (2) solo-team, and (3) male-female formats. He will also speak on how these collaborations have been driving innovation in the Polish national system of higher education and academic profession, and contributing to the Polish Excellence Initiative.

Brief bio:

Professor Marek Kwiek is the UNESCO Chair in Institutional Research and Higher Education Policy and Director of the Institute for Advanced Studies in Social Sciences and Humanities (IAS), University of Poznan, Poland. His research interests are science of science, quantitative science studies, higher education research, and sociology of the academic profession. His current studies focus on research collaboration and social stratification in science. He has published about 200 papers and book chapters and 8 monographs. In 2020, he published in Higher EducationStudies in Higher EducationScientometrics, and Journal of Economic Surveys. In 2019, he published a book: Changing European Academics: A Comparative Study of Social Stratification, Work Patterns and Research Productivity (Routledge). He has also served as a Principal Investigator in 25 international higher education research projects, and has been an editorial board member for Higher Education QuarterlyEuropean Educational Research JournalBritish Educational Research JournalEuropean Journal of Higher Education and for a Springer book series Higher Education Dynamics. He can be followed on Twitter @Marek_Kwiek

French-language edition of Shadow Education Book discussed by Ministers of Education in Africa

On 15 April 2021, CONFEMEN (Conférence des ministres de l’Éducation des États et gouvernements de la Francophonie), which is headquartered in Senegal, hosted high-level webinar focused on the CERC book written by Mark Bray L’éducation de l’ombre en Afrique (i.e. the French translation of the book Shadow Education in Africa: Private Supplementary Tutoring and its Policy Implications).

The event was co-hosted by France Éducation International, which is an arm of the French government responsible for international relations in the education sector. 

Following introductions by CONFEMEN Secretary-General Abdel-Rahamane Baba-Moussa and FEI Director-General Pierre-François Mourier, Mark Bray presented the book. Then six Ministers of Education and/or their representatives spoke, namely: 

  • Chad: Aboubakar Assidick Tchoroma,
  • Gabon: Camelia Ntoutoume-Leclerq,
  • Guinea: M. Bah,
  • Guinea Bissau: Arcenio Adulai Baldé, 
  • Senegal: Chaikana Lam, and
  • Togo: Dodzi Kokoroko.

Other speakers included:

  • Alioune Sall, Director of the African Futures Institute (AFI), 
  • Manos Antoninis, Director of UNESCO’s Global Education Monitoring Report, 
  • David Atchoarena, Director of the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning, and  
  • Koumbou Boly Barry, Chief of Education in ICESCO, and United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Right to Education.

All speakers recognized the need to focus more clearly on private supplementary tutoring, especially in the context of social inequalities. More data are needed and wider discussion in order to ‘take the topic out of the shadows’.