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Shadow Education: Private Supplementary Tutoring and Its Implications for Policy Makers in Asia

Mark Bray & Chad Lykins (2012): Shadow Education: Private Supplementary Tutoring and Its Implications for Policy Makers in Asia has just been published by the Asian Development Bank.

In all parts of Asia, households devote considerable expenditures to private supplementary tutoring. This tutoring may contribute to students’ achievement, but it also maintains and exacerbates social inequalities, diverts resources from other uses, and can contribute to inefficiencies in education systems. Such tutoring is widely called shadow education, because it mimics school systems. As the curriculum in the school system changes, so does the shadow. This study documents the scale and nature of shadow education in different parts of the region. For many decades, shadow education has been a major phenomenon in East Asia. Now it has spread throughout the region, and it has far-reaching economic and social implications.

CERC book receives award

CERC would like to extend congratulations to Ruth Hahoe, Jun Li, Jing Lin and Qiang Zha, the authors of our latest book in the Series “CERC Studies in Comparative Education”, entitled Portraits of 21st Century Chinese Universities: In the Move to Mass Higher Education. The book  has received the 2nd place in the 3rd Annual Comparative & International Education Society (CIES) Higher Education Special Interest Group (HESIG) Best Books for the academic year 2011-2012!

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