Shadow Education: Private Supplementary Tutoring and Its Implications for Policy Makers in Asia

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Mark Bray and Chad Lykins

May 2012

ISBN 978-92-9092-658-0 (Print)
ISBN 978-92-9092-659-7 (PDF)

US$32 Published by Comparative Education Research Centre (CERC) in collaboration with Asian Development Bank (ADB)

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In all parts of Asia, households devote considerable expenditures to private supplementary tutoring. This tutoring may contribute to students’ achievement, but it also maintains and exacerbates social inequalities, diverts resources from other uses, and can contribute to inefficiencies in education systems.

Such tutoring is widely called shadow education, because it mimics school systems. As the curriculum in the school system changes, so does the shadow.

This study documents the scale and nature of shadow education in different parts of the region. For many decades, shadow education has been a major phenomenon in East Asia. Now it has spread throughout the region, and it has far-reaching economic and social implications.

Review published in:

Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, Volume 45, Number 1, 2015: 176-179

Journal für Bildungsforschung Online (Journal for Educational Research Online), Volume 6, No. 1, 2014: 169–172

International Review of Education, Volume 58, Issue 6, 2012: 809-811

Related links:
– Casting a Long Shadow on Asian Education